What Is Law & Economics?

Slideshare uses cookies to increase functionality and performance, and to deliver you with relevant advertising. For instance, a decision by a court in Green County may perhaps impact future court cases in Green County, but it has no bearing on the law in any other county. To study and practice law, you are going to require to be in a position to organize large amounts of information, recognize objectives, and produce a structure for applying that details in an efficient way in order to achieve desired final results.

Family law covers marriage and divorce proceedings, the rights of young children and rights to house and cash in the event of separation. Law in the United States is a mosaic of statutes, treaties, case law, Administrative Agency regulations, executive orders, and nearby laws. When reading, 1 must focus on the finish goal: mastering the law in order to apply it correctly in an exam. Although they have no legitimate power, getting produced without having either constitutional or statutory authority, and in truth at times contravene established law. Exactly where the law is deficient, the explanation can be alleged, but it have to be correct and lawful and not merely apparent.

You may well decide on to big in subjects that are deemed to be classic preparation for law school, such as history, English, philosophy, political science, economics or small business, or you may well concentrate your undergraduate studies in areas as diverse as art, music, science and mathematics, laptop science, engineering, nursing or education.

For example, a civil rights advocate might point out that regardless of what the law says,” discrimination primarily based on race is simply wrong. The rule is that a person’s ignorance of the law may prejuuice him, but that his ignorance of truth will not. An administrative law judge (ALJ) presides more than the court, and appeals from ALJ decisions can be taken to an HHS appeals council. Many have criticized the understanding of law as nothing at all much more than energy backed by threats. Martial law is a code established for the government of the army and navy of the United States. Some critics point out that legal positivism is also limited in its conception of law.

Higher familiarity with the legal system—its institutions, ideas, and even vocabulary—can advance your understanding of law school curriculum. The law also serves to make sure that sturdy groups and people do not use their strong positions in society to take unfair benefit of weaker individuals. Your Pre-Law Advisor can assistance you find methods to acquire exposure to the law and the legal profession, and assist you with the law college application process.

How to Open a Representative Office in Thailand

Foreign investors who wish to open a 100% foreign-owned business in the Kingdom of Thailand have the option to register a representative office in Thailand.  This is akin to establishing a non-trading legal vehicle with reference to a company’s main office located outside Thailand.

What is a Representative Office?

A representative office is a non-profit establishment as opposed to a commercial establishment.  As a non-trading legal vehicle, a Representative Office is tasked to support the undertakings of the main company and its subsidiaries overseas, or in this case, in Thailand.  In essence, a Representative Office cannot:

  • Issue receipts or invoices for services to third parties and sale of goods
  • Enter into a legal agreement with any third party

As a foreign business non-trading branch, a Representative Office is limited to the following services:

  • Controlling and inspecting quality of goods purchased in Thailand by the main headquarters overseas
  • Sourcing of services and goods in Thailand for the main headquarters.
  • Circulating information about the main office’s new services and products.
  • Gathering information and reporting on activities and development of local businesses
  • Providing advice relating to products sold to customers and distributors.

The permitted scope of activities of a Representative Office is quite restricted.  Aside from being constrained to take in purchase orders and sell, a Representative Office cannot enter into any kind of business negotiation with any juristic person or third person.  The restrictions are income-draining on the part of the main headquarters, as all expenditures of the Representative Office are shouldered by the main headquarters. This office is not subjected to pay corporate income tax based on the provisions of the revenue code. However, the interest of the remitted funds to the main office is taxed.  Lastly, the Office must prepare a financial statement from the Accounting Act.

Applying for a Representative Office

A foreign applicant opting to put up a Representative Office in Thailand is required to apply for a Foreign Business license.  The application process requires that all documents to be submitted must be duly notarized at the Notary Public prior to submission to the Commercial Registrar.  The requirements are:

  • An affidavit that includes the name of the company, address, business registration number, date of registration, registered jurisdiction of the company.
  • A complete list of the company’s directors, complete with their legal names, ages, nationalities, races, addresses, and their number of shares. Indication as to which directors have the influence to bind the company.
  • Authenticated copy of the company’s Articles of Incorporation
  • Authenticated copy of the company’s Articles of Association
  • Company report on its working capital, number of shares and its value, amount of paid up capital stock.
  • Complete list of the company’s shareholders and their number of shares
  • Documents that support the limitation or the extent of the Representative Office manager’s power of attorney in running the business

Additional duly notarized documents are required for the complete and quick processing of the application for a Representative Office.

  • Description of the company’s vision/mission in Thailand
  • Validation of the necessity of putting up the Representative Office in Thailand
  • Projection of the Representative Office’s impact on Thai society and economy
  • The company’s financial report in the last three years, translated to Thai
  • Complete list of employees, including their salaries
  • Three-year projected expenses of the Representative Office
  • Complete list of the office equipment and machinery.

The main headquarters must be committed to transfer a minimum of 5,000,000 Baht working capital into its Thailand Representative Office.  During the first year of operation, a minimum of 2,000,000 Baht must be remitted.  From then on, a minimum of 1,000,000 Baht is to be transferred to the Office in Thailand.

Particular types of Representative Office such as international business offices, foreign bank offices, security, finance, and credit finance officers, are required to obtain additional licenses or permits.

All applicants are required to fill the application form in print. It must be duly signed by the applicant or his designated appointee. If the power of attorney was executed outside Thailand, said power of attorney must be notarized in the said country, or by a legitimate official of the Royal Thai Embassy or Consulate in the said country. If the power of attorney was executed in Thailand, the non-resident applicant appointee must procure an authenticated photocopy of his passport, or temporary residence certificate.  If signatures were procured in another country, certification of such signatures must be provided.  If documentation is in a foreign language, correct Thai translation is required.  Lastly, all submitted documents must be certified correct by the applicant.

If the application for a Registration Office is in Bangkok, the form and documents are to be submitted at the Department of Business Development, Ministry of Commerce. In other provinces in Thailand, application form and documents are to be submitted to the Provincial Office of the Business Development.

What Is Lawful Interception (LI)?

It appears the UAE had some problems reading Blackberry communications and turned to SS8 for a solution. Time has come for the Supreme Court of India to stop Indian Executive from Hijacking the Constitution of India, by bypassing each Parliament of India and Indian Judiciary. Naturally, even Private Folks also jumped upon Illegal Phone Tapping and E-Surveillance business and they are openly operating in India. As on date, we have no constitutionally sound lawful interception and phone tapping law in India.

Legal Guide To Aid You Filing A Wrongful Death Case

State and neighborhood lawmakers have taken action to avoid bullying and protect children. Updated annually by AGC and the nationally prestigious recognized law firm of Smith, Currie, and Hancock, LLP, your subscription offers searchable on the net information for all fifty states, DC, and Puerto Rico, which can be quickly sorted by state or topic region. The mission of the Mississippi State Law Library is to deliver law library services to the Supreme Court and other state courts, to state officials and to the common public. Get an overview of state legislative and policy activity in all topics of sexual and reproductive wellness.

Journal Of Contract Law

Contracts need to be interpreted as a whole, with its clauses interpreted in a manner constant with the general intent of the agreement. Johnston, Jason Scott, 1999, Communication and Courtship: Low-cost Talk Economics and the Law of Contract Formation”, Virginia Law Overview, 85(three): 385-501. That is, they contract primarily based simply on formal contractual capacity and take each other’s stated intentions at face worth, by no means second-guessing each other’s substantive purposes. At common law, the components of a contract are give, acceptance, intention to produce legal relations, and consideration. Orthodox theories of contract argue that this characterization reveals that the effective functionality regime possesses a fundamentally non-contractual character.

Whilst a contract is becoming performed, it is known as an executory contract , and when it is completed it is an executed contract. Section two describes encroachments by these bodies of law into contract and the doctrinal, economic, and moral ideas that every employs. Kull, Andrew, 2001, Disgorgement for Breach, the ‘Restitution Interest,’ and the Restatement of Contracts”, Texas Law Assessment, 79: 2021-2053.

Finally, harm-based theories of contract will have to do additional than just show that agreement-based reliance (or expectations) can be justified when the surrounding situations are proper. An individual with a mental disability, a minor, or somebody drugged with no their understanding might be relieved of their obligations below an otherwise valid contract due to the fact they lacked capacity. Compensatory damages, which are provided to the party which was detrimented by the breach of contract.

Some legal scholars would break the financial impasse on moral grounds, favoring extra robust notions of contractual duty” more than the feeble notion of duty that (the theory of efficient breach reveals) orthodox accounts of contract law invite (Brooks 2006: 753). Understanding contract doctrine in this way requires taking some interpretive license, but possibly not so a great deal as to call for rejecting tort law’s basic colonizing claim.

A mistake is an incorrect understanding by one particular or more parties to a contract and may perhaps be employed as grounds to invalidate the agreement. Making use of these rankings of state contract law, researchers determine traits of contracts, borrowers, and lenders across states to better recognize the economic consequences related with contract law.

And this entails that the restitutionary treatments preferred by these who propose to recast contract in fiduciary terms expose contracting parties to the danger of expensive renegotiations, which destroy contractual surplus and hence set back the interests of both promisors and promisees. Public Policy and Illegality – If a contract involves terms that require a celebration to break a law the court will refuse to enforce the contract. Quillen, Gwyn, 1988, Note, Contract Damages and Cross-Subsidization”, Southern California Law Overview, 61: 1125-1141. Action for injunction would prohibit the individual from performing the act specified in the contract.